Action Undertaken by the Principality of Monaco to Reduce its Greenhouse Gas Emissions since the Accession of H.S.H. the Sovereign Prince

One goal: A reduction of 8% by 2012.

All the action undertaken since the accession of H.S.H. Prince Albert II is aimed at enabling the Principality of Monaco to honor its commitment within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol: to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions – GHGs – by 8% between 2008 and 2012 compared to those in 1990 which represented approximately 108 000 tons CO2 eq. The latest inventory, carried out in 2008, shows emissions amounting to approximately 98 000 tons of CO2 equivalents.

Therefore, a reduction of 9.18% has already been achieved. This means that the Principality is in a more than favorable position with regard to its commitments. In order to combat greenhouse gases, the first measure consists of reducing emissions relating to “domestic” activity. Offsetting is therefore only a complementary lever. In Monaco, several measures have been implemented to reduce anthropic emissions. The HQE (High Environmental Quality) approach, applied to all construction work, forms part of this action.

These emissions are classified according to the type of cause: linked to district heating, due to travel or due to waste-to-energy recovery from the incineration of household waste.

Emissions linked to district heating

These represent approximately 31% of GHG emissions generated in Monaco. In order to lower this figure, the Government of Monaco has introduced several measures, such as banning domestic fuel heating in new buildings since 2003 and changing from domestic fuel to gas in old public buildings such as the Annonciade school complex.

Methodology for the energy study of buildings has resulted in – for the Annonciade – a 30% decrease in energy consumed since 2006.

In 2008, a State subsidy encouraged owners to replace their fossil fuel heating system with a solar heating system.

Concerning the development of renewable energies (RE), heat pumps currently supply 17% of the energy consumed in Monaco. 8 300 m3 of water per hour is pumped to produce approximately 145 000 MWh per year. These are reversible water/water systems whose energy vector is sea water, the distinctive feature of the Monegasque solution.

Emissions due to travel

These represent approximately 34% of GHG emissions generated in Monaco. Measures helping to reduce such emissions include:

– the implementation of an urban infrastructure masterplan (construction of the east/west back road for inter-district underground road traffic with access/exit facilities within each district),
– the production and implementation of an Urban Transport Plan (U.T.P.) based on the development of public transport and soft transportation methods together with increased mechanical linkage systems (public lifts and escalators), the promotion of clean and low-pollution vehicles, more car pool schemes, etc.

An incentive policy to promote electric and hybrid vehicles, including a purchase premium of up to 30% of the purchase price, the implementation of free battery recharging in public car parks and preferential rates for car park subscribers owning such vehicles.

The development of public transport including the modernization of the Principality’s bus network: more frequent service, improved information for travelers, the implementation of new services (bus boat, evening bus, night bus), fare policy (1 euro ticket).

Five TER trains have been purchased by the Principality offering train services to Monaco station every fifteen minutes at peak hours in the morning and evening.

Several restrictive traffic measures have also been implemented concerning buses, heavy goods vehicles and caravans.

Reducing heavy goods vehicle traffic: the CDU/PAL example

In 1989, the Urban Distribution Centre (CDU) was set up. This resulted in a decrease of heavy goods vehicle traffic as their access to Monaco was restricted, with the exception of the Fontvieille industrial zone.
The Fontvieille CDU takes delivery of all goods carried by heavy goods vehicles and ensures that they are delivered by the most appropriate vehicles. In 1999, in order to meet the growing demand, the Government of Monaco linked up the CDU with a pre-consolidation platform 35 km to the west of Monaco in the Logistics Business Park (PAL) in Nice: 4 warehouses with a total surface area of 20,000 m².
A study carried out by ADEME showed the sustainable development benefit of the PAL/CDU arrangement. Per year: 59 tons of CO2 equivalent avoided, 49 tons of petroleum equivalent saved, an average decrease of 38% of atmospheric pollutant emissions. Thanks to the logistics performance generated, energy consumption has dropped by 36%; traffic congestion caused by commercial vehicles by 50%.

Emissions due to waste-to-energy recovery from the incineration of household waste

These represent approximately 30% of GHG emissions generated in Monaco, although the energy recovery of household waste and sludge from the treatment of waste water (undertaken since the 1980s) produces an equivalent amount of electricity to that used by the Principality’s entire public lighting, as well as heating and cooling for the buildings in the Fontvieille district.

Action implemented by the Government of Monaco to reduce its emissions due to the incineration of waste is chiefly focused on strengthening selective waste collection. The Principality has fifty or so collection points for glass, paper and household packaging. i.e. a density of one recycling point for approximately 700 inhabitants, as well as 5 oil recycling banks and a collection service for toxic household waste.
Selective waste collection, as far as glass and paper are concerned, is also geared towards companies and the Civil Service.

Collection points for used batteries have also been set up in shops and public institutions, in addition to 100 collection points for printer cartridges in public services and companies.

In 2007, 16 tons of paper, newspapers and magazines were collected every month. Since March 2008, 88 tons have been collected every month, i.e. an increase of 550%. At the same time, 90 tons of glass is collected each month, compared to 42 tons previously. Household packaging amounts to 12 tons every month.

International action

In order to better understand the various measures undertaken by the Principality of Monaco as far as combating climate change is concerned, we need to bear in mind one fact: one ton of greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere has the same impact on climate change, wherever it is released and whatever its source.

This equivalence principle formed the basis of the offset mechanisms for the Kyoto Protocol. They enable certain States or companies to use the said principle in order to satisfy part of their obligations to cut back emissions.

Several measures have been implemented by the Principality of Monaco outside its national territory. Such as, in 2007, the signing of a cooperation agreement between the Government of Monaco, the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation and the French National Forestry Commission. An extension of a partnership instigated in 1979 which has resulted in various reforestation programs, as well as the planting of approximately 340,000 trees over several hundred hectares of natural green area destroyed by fire in the neighboring region.

The Office of International Cooperation conducts many programs, such as reforestation campaigns and the implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM). Within the context of the Kyoto protocol, the latter enable a developed country to be actively involved in concrete projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the developing countries.

The Principality of Monaco belongs to the Carbon Neutral Network (CN NET) under the umbrella of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).

Monaco decided to increase its involvement in the fight against climate change even further by joining the Carbon Neutral Network. In February 2008, the Principality of Monaco made a commitment, alongside nine other countries (Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Iceland, the Maldives, New Zealand, Norway, Niue, Pakistan, Portugal) in favor of carbon neutrality, which is based on two premises:

– to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions,
– to offset irreducible emissions, mainly through the implementation of cooperation mechanisms.

The goal of the CN NET network, developed by UNEP, is to promote nations, local authorities and companies which devise and implement strategies to significantly reduce their GHG emissions and pledge to become “neutral” by a freely fixed deadline. The date determined for the Principality of Monaco is currently under examination.

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